A man-made sweetener that people use in place of sugar because it has no
A type of fat that comes from animals.
Second Phase Insulin
See also: Fats.
Delayed release of insulin into the bloodstream from the beta cell
after the blood glucose level rises. It is thought that this delayed release
is due to release of insulin that is manufactured in the beta cell after the
blood sugar starts to rise.
See also: First
Phase Insulin Release.
When a person gets diabetes because of another disease or because of
taking certain drugs or chemicals.
To make and give off such as when the beta cells make insulin and then
release it into the blood so that the other cells in the body can use it to
turn glucose (sugar) into energy.
A surgical procedure in which a part of a pancreas that contains
insulin-producing cells is placed in a person whose pancreas has stopped
Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose
A way as person can test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. Also
called home blood glucose monitoring.
See also: Blood
A severe condition that causes severe low blood pressure, decreased
level of consciousness, and is a threat to life.
A term no longer used. See Hypoglycemia;
Adjusting insulin on the basis of blood glucose tests, meals, and
A hormone made by the delta
cells of the pancreas (in areas called the islets
of Langerhans). Scientists think it may control how the body secretes
two other hormones, insulin and
A swing to a high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood from an
extremely low level, usually occurring after an untreated insulin reaction
during the night. The swing is caused by the release of stress hormones to
counter low glucose levels. People who experience high levels of blood
glucose in the morning may need to test their blood glucose levels in the
middle of the night. If blood glucose levels are falling or low, adjustments
in evening snacks or insulin doses may be recommended. This condition is
named after Dr. Michael Somogyi, the man who first wrote about it. Also
See also: Dawn
A sugar alcohol the body uses slowly. It is a sweetener used in diet
foods. It is called a nutritive sweetener because it has four calories in
every gram, just like table sugar and starch.
Sorbitol is also produced by the body. Too much sorbitol in cells can
cause damage. Diabetic
retinopathy and neuropathy
may be related to too much sorbitol in the cells of the eyes and nerves.
When the blood is holding so much of a substance such as glucose (sugar)
that the kidneys allow the excess to spill into the urine.
See also: Renal
Division of a prescribed daily dose of insulin into two or more
injections given over the course of a day. Also may be referred to as
multiple injections. Many people who use insulin feel that split doses offer
more consistent control over blood glucose (sugar) levels.
Stiff Hand Syndrome
Thickening of the skin of the palm that results in loss of ability to
hold hand straight. This condition occurs only in people with diabetes.
Disease caused by damage to blood vessels in the brain. Depending on the
part of the brain affected, a stroke can cause a person to lose the ability
to speak or move a part of the body such as an arm or a leg. Usually only
one side of the body is affected.
See also: Cerebrovascular
A term no longer used.
Putting a fluid into the tissue under the skin with a needle and
syringe. See also: Injection.
Table sugar; a form
of sugar that the body must break down into a more simple form before the
blood can absorb it and take it to the cells.
A class of carbohydrates that taste sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy
fuel for the body to use. Types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose,
See also: Glucose, fructose.
One of several different classes of pills that lower the level of glucose in
the blood. Used in Type 2
There are several sulfonylurea pills available. Four, known as
"first-generation" drugs, have been in use for some time.
See also: Oral
A manifestation relating to the body or its functions that is suggestive
of disease. Example: frequent urination is a symptom of diabetes.
A set of signs or a series of events occurring together that make up a
disease or health problem.
A phrase describing a combination of health conditions that place a
person at high risk for heart disease. These conditions are Type 2
diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high
levels of fat in the blood), and obesity. According to theory, all of these
conditions are associated with high blood insulin levels, and it is claimed
that the underlying problem in patients with Syndrome X is faulty
insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas.
A device used to inject medications or other liquids into body tissues.
The syringe for insulin has a hollow plastic or glass tube (barrel) with a
plunger inside. The plunger forces the insulin through the needle into the
body. Most insulin syringes now come with a needle attached. The side of the
syringe has markings to show how much insulin is being injected.
A word used to describe conditions that affect the entire body. Diabetes
is a systemic disease because it involves many parts of the body such as the
pancreas, eyes, kidneys, heart, and nerves.
Systolic Blood Pressure