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Ketoacidosis

See: Diabetic ketoacidosis.

Ketones (Ketone Bodies)

Chemicals that the body makes when there is not enough insulin in the blood and it must break down fat for its energy. Ketone bodies can poison and even kill body cells. When the body does not have the help of insulin, the ketones build up in the blood and then "spill" over into the urine so that the body can get rid of them. The body can also rid itself of one type of ketone, called acetone, through the lungs. This gives the breath a fruity odor. Ketones that build up in the body for a long time lead to serious illness and coma.
See also: Diabetic ketoacidosis.

Ketonuria

Having ketone bodies in the urine; a warning sign of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Ketosis

A condition of having ketone bodies build up in body tissues and fluids. The signs of ketosis are nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Ketosis can lead to ketoacidosis.

Ketotic Hypoglycemia

A poorly-understood disorder of childhood, marked by hypoglycemia and ketosis There is carbohydrate deprivation, with consequent dependence on fat stores for energy. Ketotic hypoglycemia can often be effectively treated by simple dietary changes involving frequent feedings of carbohydrate and protein.

Kidney Disease

Any one of several chronic conditions that are caused by damage to the cells of the kidney. People who have had diabetes for a long time may have kidney damage. Also called nephropathy.

Kidneys

Two organs in the lower back that clean waste and poisons from the blood. The kidneys are shaped like two large beans, and they act as the body's filter. They also control the level of some chemicals in the blood such as hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and phosphate.

Kidney Threshold

The point at which the blood is holding too much of a substance such as glucose (sugar) and the kidneys "spill" the excess sugar into the urine.
See also: Renal threshold.

Kussmaul Breathing

The rapid, deep, and labored breathing of people who have ketoacidosis or who are in a diabetic coma. Kussmaul breathing is named for Adolph Kussmaul, the 19th century German doctor who first noted it. Also called "air hunger."

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