IDDM (Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus)
See: Type 1
Of unknown origin.
Drugs that block the body's ability to fight infection or foreign
substances that enter the body. A person receiving a kidney or pancreas
transplant is given these drugs to stop the body from rejecting the new
organ or tissue. Cyclosporin is a commonly used immunosuppressive drug.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance
Blood glucose (sugar) levels higher than normal but not high enough to
be called diabetes. People with IGT may or may not develop diabetes. Other
names (no longer used) for IGT are "borderline," "subclinical," "chemical,"
or "latent" diabetes.
Implantable Insulin Pump
A small pump placed inside of the body that delivers insulin in response
to commands from a hand-held device called a programmer.
The loss of a man's ability to have an erect penis and to emit semen.
Some men may become impotent after having diabetes for a long time because
the nerves or blood vessels have become damaged. Sometimes the problem has
nothing to do with diabetes and may be treated with counseling.
How often a disease occurs; the number of new cases of a disease among a
certain group of people for a certain period of time.
Taking food, water, or medicine into the body by mouth.
Putting liquid into the body with a needle and syringe. A person with
diabetes injects insulin by putting the needle into the tissue under the
skin (called subcutaneous). Other ways of giving medicine or nourishment by
injection are to put the needle into a vein (intravenous) or into a muscle
Places on the body where people can inject insulin most easily. These
These areas can vary with the size of the person.
Injection Site Rotation
- The outer area of the upper arm.
- Just above and below the waist, except the area right around the navel
(a 2-inch circle).
- The upper area of the buttock, just behind the hip bone.
- The front of the thigh, midway to the outer side, 4 inches below the
top of the thigh to 4 inches above the knee.
Changing the places on the body where a person injects insulin. Changing
the injection site keeps lumps or small dents from forming in the skin.
These lumps or dents are called lipodystrophies. However, people should try
to use the same body area for injections that are given at the same time
each day-for example, always using the stomach for the morning injection or
an arm for the evening injection. Using the same body area for these routine
injections lessens the possibility of changes in the timing and action of
(sugar) for energy. The beta cells
of the pancreas (in areas called the islets
of Langerhans) make the insulin. When the body cannot make enough
insulin on its own, a person with diabetes must inject insulin made from
other sources, i.e., beef, pork, human insulin (recombinant DNA origin), or
human insulin (pork-derived, semisynthetic).
Insulin? and Diabetes Team
Questions about Insulin
When a person's body has an allergic or bad reaction to taking insulin
made from pork or beef or from bacteria, or because the insulin is not
exactly the same as human insulin or because it has impurities.
The allergy can be of two forms. Sometimes an area of skin becomes red
and itchy around the place where the insulin is injected. This is called a
In another form, a person's whole body can have a bad reaction This is
called a systemic allergy. The person can have hives or red patches all over
the body or may feel changes in the heart rate and in the rate of breathing.
A doctor may treat this allergy by prescribing purified insulins or by
desensitization. See also: Desensitization.
Something that opposes or fights the action of insulin. Insulin lowers
the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas glucagon raises it;
therefore, glucagon is an antagonist of insulin.
When insulin attaches itself to something else. This can occur in two
ways. First, when a cell needs energy, insulin can bind with the outer part
of the cell. The cell then can bring glucose (sugar) inside and use it for
energy. With the help of insulin, the cell can do its work very well and
very quickly. But sometimes the body acts against itself. In this second
case, the insulin binds with the proteins that are supposed to protect the
body from outside substances (antibodies). If the insulin is an injected
form of insulin and not made by the body, the body sees the insulin as an
outside or "foreign" substance. When the injected insulin binds with the
antibodies, it does not work as well as when it binds directly to the cell.
Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
See: Type 1
Small dents that form on the skin when a person keeps injecting a needle
in the same spot. They are harmless.
See also: Lipoatrophy;
Small lumps that form under the skin when a person keeps injecting a
needle in the same spot.
See also: Lipodystrophy;
injection site rotation.
An insulin injection device the size of a pen that includes a needle and
holds a vial of insulin. It can be used instead of syringes for giving
A device that delivers a continuous supply of short-acting insulin into
the body. The insulin flows from the pump through a plastic tube (called a
that is connected to a needle inserted into the skin and taped in place.
Insulin is delivered at different rates, which can be either manually set
or preprogrammed: a low, steady rate (called the basal rate) for
continuous day-long coverage, and extra boosts of insulin (called
bolus doses) to cover meals or when extra insulin is needed. Both the
basal and bolus rates are adjustable by the user, in response to blood sugar
tests done with standard methods; no available pump can measure the sugar
level and calculate what changes to make in the insulin doses.
The pump runs on batteries and can be worn clipped to a belt or carried
in a pocket. It is usually used by people with insulin-dependent
diabetes, although it is occasionally recommended for people with other
forms of diabetes.
See also:Insulin Pumps Diabetes
Team Questions about Insulin Pumps
Too low a level of glucose (sugar) in the blood; also called
hypoglycemia. This occurs when a person with diabetes has injected too much
insulin, eaten too little food, or exercised without extra food. The person
may feel hungry, nauseated, weak, nervous, shaky, confused, and sweaty.
Taking small amounts of sugar, sweet juice, or food with sugar will usually
help the person feel better within 10-15 minutes.
See also: Hypoglycemia;
Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow the cell to join or bind
with insulin that is in the blood. When the cell and insulin bind together,
the cell can take glucose (sugar) from the blood and use it for energy.
A state in which a given level of serum insulin produces a less than
expected biological effect. Patients may vary from normoglycemic to severely
diabetic despite large doses of insulin. Many people with Type 2 diabetes
produce enough insulin, but their bodies do not respond to the action of
insulin. This may happen because the person is overweight and does not
respond well to insulin. Also, as people age, their body cells lose some of
the ability to respond to insulin. Insulin resistance is also linked to high
blood pressure and high levels of fat in the blood (see Syndrome
Another kind of insulin resistance
may rarely happen in people who take insulin injections. They may have to
take very high doses of insulin every day (e.g., 200 units or more (in
adults)) to bring their blood glucose down to the normal range. This has
also been called "insulin insensitivity."
A term no longer used. See Hypoglycemia;
A tumor of the beta cells
in areas of the pancreas called the islets
of Langerhans. Although not usually cancerous, such tumors may cause the
body to make extra insulin and
may lead to a blood
glucose (sugar) level that is too low.
Pain in the muscles of the leg that occurs off and on, usually while
walking or exercising, and results in lameness (claudication). The pain
results from a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle. Drugs are
available to treat this condition.
A form of treatment for insulin-dependent diabetes in which the main
objective is to keep blood glucose (sugar) levels as close to the normal
range as possible. The treatment consists of three or more insulin
injections a day or use of an insulin
pump; four or more blood glucose tests a day; adjustment of insulin,
food intake, and activity levels based on blood glucose test results;
dietary counseling; and management by a diabetes team.
Putting a fluid into a muscle with a needle and syringe.
Putting a fluid into a vein with a needle and syringe.
Islet Cell Antibodies (ICA's)
See also: Diabetes
Control and Complications Trial; team
Specialized proteins, called antibodies,
that are found in the blood of many people with Type
1 diabetes at the time of diagnosis. Most people with Type 1 diabetes
have antibodies to a variety of islet cell proteins that are apparently
released as a consequence of damage to the beta cells of
the pancreas. The presence of these antibodies therefore is a useful
indicator that the autoimmune
process has begun.
The antibodies that are presently routinely assayed include:
- IAA antiinsulin
- GAD65 anti glutamic acid decarboxylase
- ICA512 a specific islet cell antibody
- EMA antiendomyseal antibodies (a test for celiac synmdrome, another
autoimmune disorder occurring in 5% of new-onset Type 1 diabetes)
- Anti 21-hydroxylase (a test for Addison's disease, also an autoimmune
condition found in 2% of new onset Type 1 diabetes)
Moving the beta (islet) cells from a donor pancreas and putting them
into a person whose pancreas has stopped producing insulin. The beta cells
make the insulin that the body needs to use glucose (sugar) for energy.
Although transplanting islet cells may one day help people with diabetes,
the procedure is still in the research stage. Transplantation of the
pancreas itself is surgically feasible, and is sometimes advised for some
Islet Cells (Islets/Islands of
See also: Pancreas
(Pronouciation: EYE-let cells). The clumps of cells within the pancreas
that include those cells that make insulin and other hormones. The cells
include several subvarieties, including:
and PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known.
The islet cells appear under low-power magnification to be islands
(islets) within the pancreas. First described by Dr. Paul Langerhans in
1869, whose name is now associated with these islands.