GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase)
A normal enzyme found in all cells that initiates the metabolism of a
substance called glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is a component of all proteins
and is also part of the cycle for the disposal of a waste product called
ammonia. The presence of antibodies
to GAD (called anti-GAD antibodies) in the blood is an early indication of
the start of the autoimmune process in Type 1A Diabetes.
A type of sugar found in milk products and sugar beets. It is also made
by the body. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has calories.
The death of body tissue. It is most often caused by a loss of blood
flow, especially in the legs and feet.
A form of nerve damage that affects the stomach. Food is not digested
properly and does not move through the stomach in a normal way, resulting in
vomiting, nausea, or bloating and interfering with diabetes management.
See also: Autonomic
A basic unit of heredity. Genes are made of DNA, a substance
that tells cells what to do and when to do it. The information in the genes
is passed from parent to child-for example, a gene might tell some cells to
make the hair red or the eyes brown.
Relating to genes.
The length of pregnancy.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
See also: Gene; heredity.
A type of diabetes mellitus that can occur when a woman is pregnant. In
the second half of the pregnancy, the woman may have glucose (sugar) in the
blood at a higher than normal level. However, when the pregnancy ends, the
blood glucose levels return to normal in about 95 percent of all cases.
An inflammation of the gums that if left untreated may lead to
periodontal disease, a serious gum disorder. Signs of gingivitis are
inflamed and bleeding gums.
See also: Periodontal
A group of special cells that make substances so that other parts of the
body can work. For example, the pancreas is a gland that releases insulin so
that other body cells can use glucose (sugar) for energy.
See also: Endocrine
An eye disease associated with increased pressure within the eye.
Glaucoma can damage the optic nerve and cause impaired vision and blindness.
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Measure of the kidneys' ability to filter and remove waste products.
Network of tiny blood vessels in the kidneys where the blood is filtered
and waste products are removed.
A hormone that raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. The alpha
cells of the pancreas, in areas called the islets
of Langerhans, make glucagon when the body needs to put more sugar into
An injectable form of glucagon is available as a prescription item, for
use to treat severe insulin reactions. The glucagon is injected and raises
blood glucose levels within a half-hour. It is frequently recommended that
people with Type 1 diabetes, and other people taking insulin injections,
have a family member learn how to administer glucagon.
The formation of glucose from protein within the liver.
A simple sugar found in the blood. It is the body's main source of
energy; also known as dextrose.
See also: Blood
glucose, Fructose, Sugar.
Glucose Tolerance Test
A test to see if a person has diabetes. The test is given in a lab or
doctor's office in the morning before the person has eaten. A first sample
of blood is taken from the person. Then the person drinks a liquid that has
glucose (sugar) in it. After one hour, a second blood sample is drawn, and,
after another hour, a third sample is taken. The object is to see how well
the body deals with the glucose in the blood over time.
A ranking of foods based on their immediate effect on blood sugar
levels. The Glycemic Index measures how much your blood sugar increases over
a period of two or three hours after a meal.
foods that break down quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic
The effect of different foods on blood glucose (sugar) levels over a
period of time. Researchers have discovered that some kinds of foods may
raise blood glucose levels more quickly than other foods containing the same
amount of carbohydrates.
A substance made up of sugars. It is stored in the liver and muscles and
releases glucose (sugar) into the blood when needed by cells. Glycogen is
the chief source of stored fuel in the body.
Glycogenesis (or glucogenesis)
The process by which glycogen is formed from glucose.
See also: Glycogen.
Having glucose (sugar) in the urine.
Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test
See also: Renal
A blood test that measures a person's average blood glucose (sugar)
level for the 2- to 3-month period before the test.
A1C and HbA1c
A unit of weight in the metric system. There are 28 grams in 1 ounce. In
some diet plans for people with diabetes, the suggested amounts of food are
given in grams.
A form of thyroid
disease, with overactivity of the thyroid function, enlargement of the size
of the gland, and bulging eyes (exophthalmos) being common features. Named
after a 19th century Irish physician.
Graves' is autoimmune
in nature. It is found somewhat more commonly than expected in people with