A swelling or puffiness of some part of the body such as the ankles.
Water or other body fluids collect in the cells and cause the swelling.
Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Velocity
Tests used to diagnose neuropathy and check for nerve damage. These
tests are usually both run at the same time, using the same equipment.
Emergency Medical Identification
Cards, bracelets, or necklaces with a written message used by people
with diabetes or other medical problems to alert others in case of a medical
emergency such as coma.
See the list of companies that sell Medical Alert
The part of the pancreas
that produces hormones that govern sugar metabolism. Compare with the exocrine
Glands that release hormones into the bloodstream. They affect how the
body uses food (metabolism). They also influence other body functions. One
endocrine gland is the pancreas. It releases insulin so the body can use
sugar for energy.
See also: Gland.
A doctor who treats people who have problems with their endocrine
glands. Diabetes is an endocrine disorder.
See also: Endocrine
Produced or made inside the body; for instance, insulin made by a person's own pancreas is endogenous insulin.
In Type 1 diabetes, several different autoantibodies against normal
tissues are found. These antibodies are associated with the destruction of
cells of the pancreas, although their exact role is uncertain. Some of
the autoantibodies which are found in diabetes patients include islet-cell
antibodies (ICA's), anti-insulin antibodies (AIA's) and anti-GAD
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
The final phase of kidney disease; treated by dialysis or kidney
See also: Dialysis; nephropathy.
A special type of protein. Enzymes help the body's chemistry work better
and more quickly. Each enzyme usually has its own chemical job to do such as
helping to change starch into glucose (sugar).
The study of a disease that deals with how many people have it, where
they are, how many new cases develop, and how to control the disease.
One of several hormones made
in the adrenal
glands. It helps the liver release glucose
(sugar), and limits the release of insulin from the pancreas.
Epinephrine is responsible for some of the symptoms of hypoglycemia, including
anxiety, sweating, tremor, pallor, nausea, and rapid heart beat.
Epinephrine is also called adrenalin. It is available as a
prescription medication, for treating severe allergic reactions by
antagonizing the effects of histamine and reducing capillary permeability.
The study of what causes a disease; also the cause or causes of a certain disease.
A normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
Compare to hyperglycemia
A grouping of foods by type to help people on special diets stay on the
diet. Each group lists food in serving sizes. A person can exchange, trade,
or substitute a food serving in one group for another food serving in the
same group. The lists put foods in six groups:
Within a food group, each serving has about the same amount of carbohydrate,
fat, and calories.
The part of the pancreas
that produces enzymes that are needed in intestinal digestion. Compare with
Produced or made outside the body; for instance, insulin that is
commercially produced (made from pork or beef pancreas or by biosynthetic
processes) is exogenous insulin when given to people.