Recommended Key References

  1. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing cardiovascular disease: addressing the nation's leading killer (At-a-Glance 2000). Available at:
  2. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. The changing face of heart disease and stroke in Canada, 1997. Available at: lcdc/bcrdd/hdsc 2000.
  3. Rapp AH, Lange RA. Early management of acute myocardial infarction. Fam Prac Recert. 1999;21:69-72, 77-80.
  4. Eikelboom JW, Lonn E, Genest J Jr, et al. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:363-375.
  5. Braunwald E. Shattuck Lecture -- Cardiovascular medicine at the turn of the millennium: triumphs, concerns, and opportunities. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1360-1369.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Assessment of laboratory tests for plasma homocysteine -- selected laboratories, July-September 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48:1013-1015.
  7. Harjai KJ. Potential new cardiovascular risk factors: left ventricular hypertrophy, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), triglycerides, oxidative stress, and fibrinogen. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:376-386.
  8. Malinow MR, Bostom AG, Krauss RM. Homocyst(e)ine, diet, and cardiovascular diseases: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association [AHA Science Advisory]. Circulation. 1999;99:178-182.
  9. Welch GN, Loscalzo J. Homocysteine and atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1042-1050.
  10. Domagala TB, Undas A, Libura M, Szczeklik A. Pathogenesis of vascular disease in hyperhomocysteinaemia. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1998;5:239-247.
    Grundy SM. Cholesterol and Atherosclerosis. Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott Co, 1990.
  11. Duell PB. The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Prev Cardiol. 1998;1:17-21.
  12. McCully KS. Vascular pathology of homocysteinemia: implications for the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Am J Pathol. 1969;56:111-128.
  13. Graham I. Homocysteine in health and disease [editorial]. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:387-388.
  14. Stampfer MJ, Malinow MR, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of plasma homocysteine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. JAMA. 1992;268:877-881.
  15. Chasan-Taber L, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH, et al. A prospective study of folate and vitamin B6 and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15:136-143.
  16. Bostom AG, Rosenberg IH, Silbershatz H, et al. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine levels and stroke incidence in elderly persons: the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:352-355.
  17. Bostom AG, Silbershatz H, Rosenberg IH, et al. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine levels and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in elderly Framingham men and women. Arch Intern Med. 1999; 159:1077-1080.
  18. Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Jee SH, et al. Effect of dietary patterns on serum homocysteine: results of a randomized, controlled feeding study. Circulation. 2000;102:852-857.
  19. McCully KS. Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B6, and cardiovascular disease [editorial]. JAMA. 1998;279:392-393.
  20. Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, et al. Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA. 1998;279:359-364.
  21. Cleophas TJ, van der Meulen J. Relationship of dietary folate and vitamin B6 with coronary heart disease in women [letter]. JAMA. 1998;280:417.
  22. Hackam DG, Peterson JC, Spence JD. What level of plasma homocyst(e)ine should be treated? Effects of vitamin therapy on progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with homocyst(e)ine levels above and below 14 痠ol/L. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13:105-110.
  23. Moustapha A, Robinson K. Homocysteine: an emerging age-related cardiovascular risk factor. Geriatrics. 1999;54:41,44-46,49-51.