Causes of Raised Prolactin

  • Physiologic
    • Pregnancy
    • Puerperium
    • Up to 6 months after weaning
  • Prolactin producing pituitary adenoma
  • Medications
    • Phenothiazines
    • Tricyclics
    • Opioids
    • Metoclopramide
    • Verapamil
    • Alpha-methyldopa
    • Isoniazid
    • Estrogen
    • Oral contraceptive pills
    • Reserpine
    • Butyrophenones
  • Hypothyroidism (due to elevated TRH)
  • Chest wall conditions
    • Herpes zoster
    • Post thoracotomy
    • Fibrocystic changes
  • Postoperative stress
  • Pituitary stalk compression
    • Craniopharyngioma
    • Pinealoma
    • Meningioma
    • Astrocytoma
    • Metastases
    • Head trauma
  • Miscellaneous causes
    • Renal failure
    • Cirrhosis
    • Sarcoid
    • Lupus
    • Carcinoma of lung or kidneys
    • Ovarian teratoma
    • Myoma
    • Eosinophilic granuloma
    • Other pituitary or hypothalamic disease