Good diabetes control implies that the blood glucose throughout the 24 hours, on each day, are at the target levels determined for each individual. In simple terms, the blood glucose levels should be as close to normal as is possible without exposing the patient to a severe attack of hypoglycemia or even to minor recurrent episodes of low blood glucose.
Besides the blood glucose levels, good control implies that the weight of the person be optimal, the blood pressure and blood lipids ( fats) should be at an acceptable level.
Importantly, good control also implies the diagnosis of the presence of the long term complications in their early, initial stages!
All the target levels given below are generalisations and individual targets MUST be established. Laxity may be allowed in elderly patients; certain conditions require a much tighter control, e.g. pregnancy, maculopathy, etc.
|Good||Fair||Poor||Venous Plasma Glucose (mg/100ml)|
|Fasting||80 - 110||111 - 125||> 125|
|2 Hours Postprandial||120 - 140||141 - 200||> 200||Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c)|
|Normal range 5-8||< 8.5||8.5 - 9.5||> 9.5|
|Blood pressure (mm/Hg)||<130/80||>140/90||>140/90|
|Total Cholesterol (mg/100ml)||< 200||200 - 240||> 240|
|HDL - Cholesterol (mg/100ml)||> 45||35 - 45||< 35|
|LDL - Cholesterol (mg/100ml)||< 35||100 - 129||> 130|
|Triglycerides (mg/100ml)||< 150||150 - 200||> 200|
Body Mass Index (BMI) is an excellent indicator of the weight status of a person. Its significance also lies in the fact that the normal values are based on the effect of body weight on disease and death, irrespective of the age and gender of an adult person.
A healthy BMI for adults is between 19 and 24.9.
A high BMI is predictive of death from cardiovascular disease. Diabetes, high blood pressure, some forms of cancer, osteoarthritis and many other ailments are also common consequences of overweight, and obesity in adults.
Obesity itself is a strong risk factor for premature death.
The BMI also allows us to judge the nutritional status of an individual. A BMI of less than 18.5 is considered to denote undernutrition.
Recently, it has been shown that the BMI used along with the Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) is better in predicting risk for many of the serious disorders such as diabetes, high blood pressure, lipid disorders and atherosclerosis leading to heart attacks and strokes etc.
What is YOUR Body Mass Index?
Good: 20-23, Fair: 23-25, Poor: >25
Research has shown that much more than the weight of a person, it is the shape of the body which is important in determining risks for the development of many serious disorders such as diabetes, high blood pressure, lipid disorders, atherosclerosis leading to heart attacks and strokes, and many other ailments.
Research shows that people with "apple-shaped" bodies (with more weight around the waist) face more risks than those with "pear-shaped" bodies that carry more weight around the hips.
Are YOU an Apple or a Pear?
To determine if you have a healthy waist to hip ratio, use a measuring tape to measure the circumference of your hips at the widest part of your buttocks. Then measure your waist at the smaller circumference of your natural waist, usually just above the belly button. (See Figure)
Recently, it has been shown that the Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) used along with the BMI is better in predicting risk for many of the serious disorders such as diabetes, high blood pressure, lipid disorders and atherosclerosis leading to heart attacks and strokes etc.